Direct and Intermediated Marketing of Local Foods in the United States

Sarah Anne Low, Stephen M. Vogel

Research output: Book/Report/Conference proceedingTechnical report


This study uses nationally representative data on marketing of local foods to assess the relative scale of local food marketing channels. This research documents that sales through intermediated marketing channels, such as farmers' sales to local grocers and restaurants, account for a large portion of all local food sales. Small and medium-sized farms dominate local foods sales marketed exclusively through direct-to-consumer channels (foods sold at roadside stands or farmers' markets, for example) while large farms dominate local food sales marketed exclusively through intermediated channels. Farmers marketing food locally are most prominent in the Northeast and the West Coast regions and areas close to densely populated urban markets. Climate and topography favoring the production of fruits and vegetables, proximity to and neighboring farm participation in farmers' markets, and good transportation and information access are found to be associated with higher levels of direct-to-consumer sales.
Original languageEnglish (US)
PublisherUSDA Economic Research Service
Number of pages38
StatePublished - Nov 2011
Externally publishedYes

Publication series

NameEconomic Research Report


  • Local foods
  • intermediated sales
  • direct sales
  • direct marketing channels


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