Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells

O. Lundberg, J. Lu, A. Rockett, M. Edoff, L. Stolt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The diffusion of indium and gallium in polycrystalline thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se2 layers has been investigated. Bilayer structures of CuInSe2 on top of CuGaSe2 and vice versa have been fabricated in both a Cu-rich and Cu-poor process (in relation to the ideal stoichiometry). In each process molybdenum coated soda-lime glass with and without a sodium barrier was used. These bilayers were analyzed with secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was found that the grain boundary diffusion was not significantly higher than the diffusion inside the grains, also for Cu-rich layers. The diffusion is suggested to mainly proceed via vacant metal sites in the lattice structure. In sodium free films a higher diffusion into the bottom layers, compared to films with sodium, was seen in all cases. This observation was explained with a larger number of vacancies, that facilitates indium and gallium diffusion, in the sodium free films. The difference in diffusion between indium in CGS layers and gallium in CIS layers, in both Cu-rich and Cu-poor processes, was small for layers with sodium.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1499-1504
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids
Issue number9-10
StatePublished - Sep 2003


  • D. Diffusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics


Dive into the research topics of 'Diffusion of indium and gallium in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this