Differential games with mixed leadership: The open-loop solution

Tamer Baar, Alain Bensoussan, Suresh P. Sethi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper introduces the notion of mixed leadership in nonzero-sum differential games, where there is no fixed hierarchy in decision making with respect to the players. Whether a particular player is leader or follower depends on the instrument variable s/he is controlling, and it is possible for a player to be both leader and follower, depending on the control variable. The paper studies two-player open-loop differential games in this framework, and obtains a complete set of equations (differential and algebraic) which yield the controls in the mixed-leadership Stackelberg solution. The underlying differential equations are coupled and have mixed-boundary conditions. The paper also discusses the special case of linear-quadratic differential games, in which case solutions to the coupled differential equations can be expressed in terms of solutions to coupled Riccati differential equations which are independent of the state trajectory.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)972-979
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Mathematics and Computation
Issue number3
StatePublished - Oct 1 2010


  • Differential games
  • Mixed leadership
  • Stackelberg-Nash solution
  • Two-point boundary-value optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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