The current work aimed at investigating the effects of the dietary supplementation of N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) or l-arginine (Arg) on the duodenal mitophagy, mitochondrial function, inflammation, and barrier function in suckling lambs suffering from intrauterine-growth-retardation (IUGR). Forty-eight neonate Hu lambs were used in this study: 12 lambs with normal birth weight (NBW: 4.25 ± 0.14 kg) and 36 lambs with IUGR (3.01 ± 0.13 kg). Seven day old lambs were assigned to 4 treatment groups (12 lambs in each group) as follows: control group (CON), IUGR group, IUGR + Arg, and IUGR + NCG. Lambs were fed the experimental diets for 21 days from 7 days to 28 days of age. Compared with IUGR lambs, the Arg or NCG-treated IUGR lambs had a markedly higher duodenal transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and lower fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD4) (P < 0.05), respectively. The duodenal mitochondrial membrane potential change (ΔΨm), relative mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, together with the activities of the respiratory complexes I, III, and IV were markedly higher in Arg or NCG-treated IUGR lambs than those in non-supplemented IUGR lambs (P < 0.05). The expressions of the integrity-related proteins (occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1)), antioxidant- and apoptosis-related proteins (B-cell lymphoma/leukaemia 2 (Bcl2), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1)), and the nitric oxide-dependent pathway-related proteins (epithelial NO synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS)) were higher in NCG or Arg-supplemented IUGR lambs than those in nontreated IUGR lambs (P < 0.05). The duodenal expressions of the mitophagy-related proteins (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) I, LC3 II, Belin1, PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), and Parkin) and the immune function-related proteins (myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), IL-6, nuclear factor kappa B (p65), toll-like receptor (TLR4) and TNF-α) were reduced (P < 0.05) in NCG or Arg-supplemented IUGR lambs compared with non-supplemented IUGR lambs. These results demonstrated that the dietary supplementation of Arg or NCG enhanced the duodenal barrier function and mitochondrial function, mitigated duodenal inflammation, and suppressed mitophagy in suckling lambs suffering from IUGR.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Science