Dietary intake, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and bone mineral density (BMD) in premenstrual gymnasts

S. M. Nickols-Richardson, R. D. Lewis, C. M. Modlesky, A. M. Latimer, D. B. Hausman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purpose of this study was to assess intakes of key nutrients needed for growth, serum IGF-I, and BMD in premenstrual gymnasts (GYM; n = 16; 10.5 ± 1.5 y; mean ± SD) and age- (± 0.35 y), height- (± 2.6 cm), and weight- (± 1.5 kg) matched (± SEM) nongymnasts (CON; n = 16; 10.5 ± 1.3 y). Mean daily dietary intakes of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, copper, and vitamin D were estimated from 3-day diet records (n = 10 GYM; n = 10 CON, Food Processor, Salem, OR). Serum IGF-I was measured by radioimmunoassay (n = 8 GYM; n = 11 CON), and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-1000W, Waltham, MA) was used to assess whole body, total proximal femur (TPF) and related sites, and lumbar spine BMD. Mean intakes of all specified nutrients were similar between GYM and CON (p > 0.05); however there was a trend for more GYM than CON to consume less than 2/3 of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for zinc (n = 3/10 GYM vs n = 0/10 CON, p = 0.06) and the Estimated Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake for copper (n = 9/10 GYM vs n = 6/10 CON, p = 0.12). Mean (± SEM) serum IGF-1 was lower in GYM versus CON (194.2 ± 35.5 vs. 262.2 ± 31.4 ng/ml, respectively, p = 0.17); however, BMD was higher (p < 0.02) in GYM as compared to CON at the TPF, femoral neck, Ward's triangle, trochanter, and lumbar spine. These data suggest that premenstrual GYM may be at risk for deficiencies of key nutrients required for growth, whereas the bone-loading maneuvers of gymnastic exercise may protect BMD against some nutritional inadequacies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)A187
JournalFASEB Journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1997
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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