We are exploring peptide nucleic acid (PNA) assemblies as interesting scaffolds for the fabrication of nanomaterials relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The first assembly is a PNA/LNA (locked nucleic acid) duplex employed in the heat-mediated selective functionalization of arrayed nanodevices. The ultimate goal of this arrayed approach is the detection of multiple miRNA sequences simultaneously with high throughput and specificity. Since miRNAs have been linked to certain disease states in various types of cancers, their detection may help lead to early diagnosis in a clinical setting. A second type of assembly has been created from PNA sequences that self-assemble based hybridization in the parallel direction. The resulting PNA nanoparticles traverse breast cancer cell membranes, making them a promising platform for the delivery of oligonucleotide probes.