Development of l-CDB-4022 as a nonsteroidal male oral contraceptive: Induction and recovery from severe oligospermia in the adult male cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

Sheri Ann Hild, Gary R. Marshall, Barbara J. Attardi, Rex A. Hess, Stefan Schlatt, David R. Simorangkir, Suresh Ramaswamy, Sailaja Koduri, Jerry R. Reel, Tony M. Plant

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The present study was undertaken to examine the antispermatogenic effect of l-CDB-4022 in the adult male cynomolgus monkey. Monkeys (four per group) were dosed via nasogastric tube for 7 d with l-CDB-4022 at 12.5 mg/kg·d or vehicle (d 0 = first day of dosing). Plasma levels of l-CDB-4022 and its deesterified metabolite were nondetectable prior to treatment and in all vehicle-treated monkeys. Peak levels of l-CDB-4022 and its metabolite were observed at 4 h after dosing with steadystate levels apparent around d 4. Sperm concentration and total sperm per ejaculate were decreased to levels below 1 × 106 sperm/ml or sperm/ejaculate in l-CDB-4022-treated monkeys by d 17 and remained suppressed through wk 6. Sperm motility also declined to 0% for 6 wk. Testicular volume was reduced in l-CDB-4022-treated monkeys through d 21. The left testis and epididymis were removed from all monkeys on d 24. At this time, the most mature germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of testes from l-CDB-4022-treated monkeys were either spermatocytes or round spermatids. Immature germ cells, but not mature sperm, were found in the efferent ducts and collapsed epididymal lumen of l-CDB-4022-treated monkeys. A steady recovery in sperm motility, concentration, and total sperm per ejaculate was observed in l-CDB-4022-treated monkeys such that these parameters were not different from those of vehicle-treated monkeys by wk 16. Volume of the remaining testis increased in vehicle- and l-CDB-4022-treated monkeys after hemicastration; however, the increase in l-CDB-4022-treated monkeys was delayed compared with that observed in the vehicle-treated monkeys. The morphology of the remaining testis and epididymis, which were removed on wk 17, was normal. Serum inhibin B levels were increased in l-CDB-4022-treated monkeys during the dosing interval; thereafter serum inhibin B levels declined such that there was no difference between the groups by wk 3. l-CDB-4022 treatment did not affect circulating levels of testosterone, LH, FSH, or estradiol. In conclusion, these data indicate that in the cynomolgus monkey, a representative higher primate, l-CDB-4022 exerts a selective antispermatogenic action, which was reversible under the conditions of this study and thus has potential as a nonhormonal oral male contraceptive.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1784-1796
Number of pages13
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology


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