Development of a bead-based assay for detection and differentiation of field strains and four vaccine strains of type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-2) in the USA

Yin Wang, Wannarat Yim-im, Elizabeth Porter, Nanyan Lu, Joe Anderson, Lance Noll, Ying Fang, Jianqiang Zhang, Jianfa Bai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) remains one of the most economically devastating diseases in swine population in the United States of America. Due to high mutation rate of the PRRS virus (PRRSV) genome, it is difficult to develop an accurate diagnostic assay with high strain coverage. Differentiation of field strains from the four vaccines that have been used in the USA, namely Ingelvac PRRS MLV, Ingelvac ATP, Fostera PRRS and Prime Pac PRRS, adds an additional challenge. It is difficult to use current real-time PCR systems to detect and differentiate the field strains from the vaccine strains. Luminex xTAG technology allows us to detect more molecular targets in a single reaction with a cost similar to a single real-time PCR reaction. By analysing all available 678 type 2 PRRSV (PRRSV-2) complete genome sequences, including the 4 vaccine strains, two pairs of detection primers were designed targeting the conserved regions of ORF4-ORF7, with strain coverage of 98.8% (670/678) based on in silico analysis. The virus strains sharing ≥98% identity of the complete genomes with the vaccine strains were considered vaccine or vaccine-like strains. One pair of primers for each vaccine strain were designed targeting the nsp2 region. In silico analysis showed the assay matched 94.7% (54/57) of Ingelvac PRRS® MLV (MLV) strain and the MLV-like strains, and 100% of the other three vaccine strains. Analytical sensitivity of the Luminex assay was one to two logs lower than that of the reverse transcription real-time PCR assay. Evaluated with 417 PRRSV-2 positive clinical samples, 95% were detected by the Luminex assay. Compared to ORF5 sequencing results, the Luminex assay detected 92.4% (73/79) of MLV strains, 78.3% (18/23) of Fostera strains and 50% (2/4) of ATP strains. None of the 472 samples were the Prime Pac strain tested by either ORF5 sequencing or the Luminex assay.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalTransboundary and Emerging Diseases
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • detection
  • differentiation
  • field strains
  • Luminex
  • PRRSV
  • vaccine strains

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)

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