A combination of cDNA cloning and detailed mass spectrometric analyses was employed to identify novel conotoxins from Conus victoriae. Eleven conotoxin sequences were determined using molecular methods: one belonging to the A superfamily (Vc1.1), six belonging to the O superfamily (Vc6.1-Vc6.6) and four members of the T superfamily (Vc5.1-Vc5.4). In order to verify the sequences and identify the post-translational modifications (excluding the disulfide connectivity) of three Conus victoriae conotoxins, vc1a, vc5a and vc6a, deduced from sequences Vc1.1, Vc5.1, and Vc6.1, respectively, liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and nanospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry with collisionally induced dissociation were performed on reduced and alkylated venom fractions. We report that vc1a, the native form of α-conotoxin Vc1.1 (an unmodified 16 amino acid residue peptide that has notable pain-relieving capabilities), includes a hydroxyproline and a γ-carboxyglutamate residue. Conotoxin vc5a is a 10-residue peptide with two disulfide bonds and a hydroxyproline and vc6a is a 25 amino acid peptide with three disulfide bonds.
- cDNA sequencing
- Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
- Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry
- Post-translational modification
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Organic Chemistry