Integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in modern smart grids (SGs) offers many advantages including the use of renewables and an effective way to protect, control and monitor the energy transmission and distribution. To reach an optimal operation of future energy systems, availability, integrity and confidentiality of data should be guaranteed. Research on the cyber-physical security of electrical substations based on IEC 61850 is still at an early stage. In the present work, we first model the network traffic data in electrical substations, then, we present a statistical ad method to detect dos attacks against the goose network communication. According to interpretations on the self-similarity and the lrd of the data, an Auto-Regressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA) model was shown to describe well the goose communication in the substation process network. Based on this ARFIMA-model and in view of cyber-physical security, an effective model-based ad method is developed and analyzed. Two variants of the statistical ad considering statistical hypothesis testing based on the Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) and the cumulative sum (CUSUM) are presented to detect flooding attacks that might affect the availability of the data. Our work presents a novel ad method, with two different variants, tailored to the specific features of the goose traffic in IEC 61850 substations. The statistical ad is capable of detecting anomalies at unknown change times under the realistic assumption of unknown model parameters. The performance of both variants of the ad method is validated and assessed using data collected from a simulation case study. We perform several Monte-Carlo simulations under different noise variances. The detection delay is provided for each detector and it represents the number of discrete time samples after which an anomaly is detected. In fact, our statistical AD method with both variants (CUSUM and GLRT) has around half the false positive rate and a smaller detection delay when compared with two of the closest works found in the literature. Our AD approach based on the GLRT detector has the smallest false positive rate among all considered approaches. Whereas, our AD approach based on the CUSUM test has the lowest false negative rate thus the best detection rate. Depending on the requirements as well as the costs of false alarms or missed anomalies, both variants of our statistical detection method can be used and are further analyzed using composite detection metrics.
- intrusion detection
- DoS attacks
- cyber-physical security
- ARFIMA model
- IEC 61850 electrical substations
- substation communication network
- model-based anomaly detection