Detection of buried targets using a new enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system

Tie Jun Cui, Weng Cho Chew, Alaeddin A. Aydiner, D. L. Wright, D. V. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In this paper, numerical simulations of a new enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system are presented, where a horizontal transmitting loop and two horizontal receiving loops are used to detect buried targets, in which three loops share the same axis and the transmitter is located at the center of receivers. In the new VETEM system, the difference of signals from two receivers is taken to eliminate strong direct-signals from the transmitter and background clutter and furthermore to obtain a better SNR for buried targets. Because strong coupling exists between the transmitter and receivers, accurate analysis of the three-loop antenna system is required, for which a loop-tree basis function method has been utilized to overcome the low-frequency breakdown problem. In the analysis of scattering problem from buried targets, a conjugate gradient (CG) method with fast Fourier transform (FFT) is applied to solve the electric field integral equation. However, the convergence of such CG-FFT algorithm is extremely slow at very low frequencies. In order to increase the convergence rate, a frequency-hopping approach has been used. Finally, the primary, coupling, reflected, and scattered magnetic fields are evaluated at receiving loops to calculate the output electric current. Numerous simulation results are given to interpret the new VETEM system. Comparing with other single-transmitter-receiver systems, the new VETEM has better SNR and ability to reduce the clutter.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2702-2712
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Buried object detection
  • Conjugate gradient fast Fourier transform (CG-FFT)
  • Electromagnetic scattering
  • Frequency hopping
  • Loop antennas
  • Loop-tree basis
  • Low frequencies
  • Numerical analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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