Detection of adulteration in apple juice using mid infrared spectroscopy

Sakhamuri Sivakesava, Joseph M.K. Irudayaraj, Renne L. Korach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Food authenticity is an issue of concern to food processors, regulatory authorities, and consumers alike. The application of fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as an analytical tool for rapid determination of the type and level of sugar adulterants (beet and cane invert sugars) in apple juice was investigated. Spectrum of adulterated apple juice was characterized and the region 800-1500 cm-1 was evaluated using multivariate statistics. Linear discriminant and canonical variate analysis were used to discriminate apple juice samples. An optimum classification of 100 and 96.2% was achieved for discriminating apple juice samples adulterated with beet and cane invert sugar, respectively using linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Partial least square (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) analyses were used to develop calibration models to estimate the quantity of beet and cane invert sugar in apple juice. R2 value for the prediction for beet and cane invert sugars was around 0.98 using various chemometric methods. The standard error of prediction (SEP) in validation set was between 1.3 and 1.8% (w/w). Results demonstrated that FTIR spectroscopy along with chemometric methods could be used for rapid detection of adulteration in apple juice. Additionally, identifying the type of adulterant, which is an elaborate process, can be achieved rapidly using the proposed technique.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)815-820
Number of pages6
JournalApplied Engineering in Agriculture
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Beet invert sugar
  • Cane invert sugar
  • Canonical variate analysis
  • Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
  • Linear discriminant analysis
  • Partial least square regression
  • Principal component regression

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering


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