Detecting Item Preknowledge Using Revisits With Speed and Accuracy

Onur Demirkaya, Ummugul Bezirhan, Jinming Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Examinees with item preknowledge tend to obtain inflated test scores that undermine test score validity. With the availability of process data collected in computer-based assessments, the research on detecting item preknowledge has progressed on using both item scores and response times. Item revisit patterns of examinees can also be utilized as an additional source of information. This study proposes a new statistic for detecting item preknowledge when compromised items are known by utilizing the hierarchical speed–accuracy revisits model. By simultaneously evaluating abnormal changes in the latent abilities, speeds, and revisit propensities of examinees, the procedure was found to provide greater statistical power and stronger substantive evidence that an examinee had indeed benefited from item preknowledge.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)521-542
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2023


  • item preknowledge
  • item revisit
  • likelihood ratio test
  • response time

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)


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