Detecting flaws in Portland cement concrete using TEM horn antennae

Imad L. Al-Qadi, Sedki M. Riad, Wansheng Su, Rami H. Haddad

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


To understand the dielectric properties of PCC and better correlate them with type and severity of PCC internal defects, a study was conducted to evaluate PCC complex permittivity and magnetic permeability over a wideband of frequencies (100 kHz to 10 GHz) using both time domain and frequency domain techniques. Three measuring devices were designed and fabricated: a parallel plate capacitor, a coaxial transmission line, and transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antennae. The TEM horn antenna covers the microwave frequencies (0.5-10 GHz). The measurement technique involves a time domain setup that was verified by a frequency domain measurement. Portland cement concrete slabs, 60 by 75 by 14 cm, were cast (intact and with defects); defects include delamination, delamination filled with water, segregation, and chloride contamination. In this paper, measurements using the TEM horn antennae and the feasibility of detecting flaws at microwave frequency are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)28-39
Number of pages12
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes
EventNondestructive Evaluation of Bridges and Highways - Scottsdale, AZ, United States
Duration: Dec 4 1996Dec 4 1996


  • Dielectric constant
  • NDE
  • PCC
  • TEM horn antenna
  • Time domain technique

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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