Designing bioactive porous titanium interfaces to balance mechanical properties and in vitro cells behavior towards increased osseointegration

Ana Civantos, Cristina Domínguez, Raisa Juliana Pino, Giulia Setti, Juan José Pavón, Enrique Martínez-Campos, Francisco Jose Garcia Garcia, José Antonio Rodríguez, Jean Paul Allain, Yadir Torres

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Titanium implant failures are mainly related to stress shielding phenomenon and the poor cell interaction with host bone tissue. The development of bioactive and biomimetic Ti scaffolds for bone regeneration remains a challenge which needs the design of Ti implants with enhanced osseointegration. In this context, 4 types of titanium samples were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy, fully dense, dense etched, porous Ti, and porous etched Ti. Porous samples were manufactured by space holder technique, using ammonium bicarbonate particles as spacer in three different ranges of particle size (100–200 μm, 250–355 μm and 355–500 μm). Substrates were chemically etched by immersion in fluorhydric acid at different times (125 and 625 s) and subsequently, were characterized from a micro-structural, topographical and mechanical point of view. Etched surfaces showed an additional roughness preferentially located inside pores. In vitro tests showed that all substrates were biocompatible (80% of cell viability), confirming cell adhesion of premioblastic cells. Similarly, osteoblast showed similar cell proliferation rates at 4 days, however, higher cell metabolic activity was observed in fully dense and dense etched surfaces at 7 days. In contrast, a significant increase of alkaline phosphatase enzyme expression was observed in porous and porous etched samples compared to control surfaces (dense and dense etched), noticing the suitable surface modification parameters (porosity and roughness) to improve cell differentiation. Furthermore, the presence of pores and rough surfaces of porous Ti substrates remarkably decreased macrophage activation reducing the M1 phenotype polarization as well M1 cell marker expression. Thus, a successful surface modification of porous Ti scaffolds has been performed towards a reduction on stress shielding phenomenon and enhancement of bone osseointegration, achieving a biomechanical and biofunctional equilibrium.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)162-174
Number of pages13
JournalSurface and Coatings Technology
Volume368
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 25 2019

Fingerprint

activity (biology)
Titanium
Bone
titanium
mechanical properties
Shielding
Mechanical properties
Surface treatment
Substrates
Ammonium bicarbonate
Surface roughness
cells
Cells
bones
Hydrofluoric Acid
Control surfaces
Macrophages
Osteoblasts
Cell adhesion
Phosphatases

Keywords

  • Biomimetic scaffolds
  • Etching
  • Osseointegration
  • Porous titanium
  • Surface modification
  • Trabecular bone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Designing bioactive porous titanium interfaces to balance mechanical properties and in vitro cells behavior towards increased osseointegration. / Civantos, Ana; Domínguez, Cristina; Pino, Raisa Juliana; Setti, Giulia; Pavón, Juan José; Martínez-Campos, Enrique; Garcia Garcia, Francisco Jose; Rodríguez, José Antonio; Allain, Jean Paul; Torres, Yadir.

In: Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 368, 25.06.2019, p. 162-174.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Civantos, A, Domínguez, C, Pino, RJ, Setti, G, Pavón, JJ, Martínez-Campos, E, Garcia Garcia, FJ, Rodríguez, JA, Allain, JP & Torres, Y 2019, 'Designing bioactive porous titanium interfaces to balance mechanical properties and in vitro cells behavior towards increased osseointegration', Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 368, pp. 162-174. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2019.03.001
Civantos, Ana ; Domínguez, Cristina ; Pino, Raisa Juliana ; Setti, Giulia ; Pavón, Juan José ; Martínez-Campos, Enrique ; Garcia Garcia, Francisco Jose ; Rodríguez, José Antonio ; Allain, Jean Paul ; Torres, Yadir. / Designing bioactive porous titanium interfaces to balance mechanical properties and in vitro cells behavior towards increased osseointegration. In: Surface and Coatings Technology. 2019 ; Vol. 368. pp. 162-174.
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abstract = "Titanium implant failures are mainly related to stress shielding phenomenon and the poor cell interaction with host bone tissue. The development of bioactive and biomimetic Ti scaffolds for bone regeneration remains a challenge which needs the design of Ti implants with enhanced osseointegration. In this context, 4 types of titanium samples were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy, fully dense, dense etched, porous Ti, and porous etched Ti. Porous samples were manufactured by space holder technique, using ammonium bicarbonate particles as spacer in three different ranges of particle size (100–200 μm, 250–355 μm and 355–500 μm). Substrates were chemically etched by immersion in fluorhydric acid at different times (125 and 625 s) and subsequently, were characterized from a micro-structural, topographical and mechanical point of view. Etched surfaces showed an additional roughness preferentially located inside pores. In vitro tests showed that all substrates were biocompatible (80{\%} of cell viability), confirming cell adhesion of premioblastic cells. Similarly, osteoblast showed similar cell proliferation rates at 4 days, however, higher cell metabolic activity was observed in fully dense and dense etched surfaces at 7 days. In contrast, a significant increase of alkaline phosphatase enzyme expression was observed in porous and porous etched samples compared to control surfaces (dense and dense etched), noticing the suitable surface modification parameters (porosity and roughness) to improve cell differentiation. Furthermore, the presence of pores and rough surfaces of porous Ti substrates remarkably decreased macrophage activation reducing the M1 phenotype polarization as well M1 cell marker expression. Thus, a successful surface modification of porous Ti scaffolds has been performed towards a reduction on stress shielding phenomenon and enhancement of bone osseointegration, achieving a biomechanical and biofunctional equilibrium.",
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AU - Civantos, Ana

AU - Domínguez, Cristina

AU - Pino, Raisa Juliana

AU - Setti, Giulia

AU - Pavón, Juan José

AU - Martínez-Campos, Enrique

AU - Garcia Garcia, Francisco Jose

AU - Rodríguez, José Antonio

AU - Allain, Jean Paul

AU - Torres, Yadir

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N2 - Titanium implant failures are mainly related to stress shielding phenomenon and the poor cell interaction with host bone tissue. The development of bioactive and biomimetic Ti scaffolds for bone regeneration remains a challenge which needs the design of Ti implants with enhanced osseointegration. In this context, 4 types of titanium samples were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy, fully dense, dense etched, porous Ti, and porous etched Ti. Porous samples were manufactured by space holder technique, using ammonium bicarbonate particles as spacer in three different ranges of particle size (100–200 μm, 250–355 μm and 355–500 μm). Substrates were chemically etched by immersion in fluorhydric acid at different times (125 and 625 s) and subsequently, were characterized from a micro-structural, topographical and mechanical point of view. Etched surfaces showed an additional roughness preferentially located inside pores. In vitro tests showed that all substrates were biocompatible (80% of cell viability), confirming cell adhesion of premioblastic cells. Similarly, osteoblast showed similar cell proliferation rates at 4 days, however, higher cell metabolic activity was observed in fully dense and dense etched surfaces at 7 days. In contrast, a significant increase of alkaline phosphatase enzyme expression was observed in porous and porous etched samples compared to control surfaces (dense and dense etched), noticing the suitable surface modification parameters (porosity and roughness) to improve cell differentiation. Furthermore, the presence of pores and rough surfaces of porous Ti substrates remarkably decreased macrophage activation reducing the M1 phenotype polarization as well M1 cell marker expression. Thus, a successful surface modification of porous Ti scaffolds has been performed towards a reduction on stress shielding phenomenon and enhancement of bone osseointegration, achieving a biomechanical and biofunctional equilibrium.

AB - Titanium implant failures are mainly related to stress shielding phenomenon and the poor cell interaction with host bone tissue. The development of bioactive and biomimetic Ti scaffolds for bone regeneration remains a challenge which needs the design of Ti implants with enhanced osseointegration. In this context, 4 types of titanium samples were fabricated using conventional powder metallurgy, fully dense, dense etched, porous Ti, and porous etched Ti. Porous samples were manufactured by space holder technique, using ammonium bicarbonate particles as spacer in three different ranges of particle size (100–200 μm, 250–355 μm and 355–500 μm). Substrates were chemically etched by immersion in fluorhydric acid at different times (125 and 625 s) and subsequently, were characterized from a micro-structural, topographical and mechanical point of view. Etched surfaces showed an additional roughness preferentially located inside pores. In vitro tests showed that all substrates were biocompatible (80% of cell viability), confirming cell adhesion of premioblastic cells. Similarly, osteoblast showed similar cell proliferation rates at 4 days, however, higher cell metabolic activity was observed in fully dense and dense etched surfaces at 7 days. In contrast, a significant increase of alkaline phosphatase enzyme expression was observed in porous and porous etched samples compared to control surfaces (dense and dense etched), noticing the suitable surface modification parameters (porosity and roughness) to improve cell differentiation. Furthermore, the presence of pores and rough surfaces of porous Ti substrates remarkably decreased macrophage activation reducing the M1 phenotype polarization as well M1 cell marker expression. Thus, a successful surface modification of porous Ti scaffolds has been performed towards a reduction on stress shielding phenomenon and enhancement of bone osseointegration, achieving a biomechanical and biofunctional equilibrium.

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