Design of a multiphase osteochondral scaffold III: Fabrication of layered scaffolds with continuous interfaces

Brendan A. Harley, Andrew K. Lynn, Zachary Wissner-Gross, William Bonfield, Ioannis V. Yannas, Lorna J. Gibson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


There is a need to improve current treatments for articular cartilage injuries. This article is the third in a series describing the design and development of an osteochondral scaffold based on collagen-glycosaminoglycan and calcium phosphate technologies for regenerative repair of articular cartilage defects. The previous articles in this series described methods for producing porous, threedimensional mineralized collagen-GAG (CGCaP) scaffolds whose composition can be reproducibly varied to mimic the composition of subchondral bone, and pore microstructure and mineral phase can be modified. This article describes a method, "liquid-phase cosynthesis," that enables the production of porous, layered scaffolds that mimic the composition and structure of articular cartilage on one side, subchondral bone on the other side, and the continuous, gradual or "soft" interface between these tissues: the tidemark of articular joints. This design enables the layered scaffolds to be inserted into the subchondral bone at an osteochondral defect site without the need for sutures, glue, or screws, with a highly interconnected porous network throughout the entire osteochondral defect. Moreover, the differential moduli of the osseous and cartilaginous compartments enable these layered scaffolds to exhibit compressive deformation behavior that mimics the behavior observed in natural articular joints.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1078-1093
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2010


  • Bone
  • Cartilage
  • Collagen
  • Osteochondral
  • Scaffold

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Metals and Alloys


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