This paper discusses the issues involving the design and fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's). A review of the basic experimental structures is given, with emphasis on recent developments in distributed Bragg reflectors, gain media, as well as current and optical confinement techniques. The paper describes present VCSEL performance, in particular, those involving selective oxidation and visible wave-length operation.
- Optoelectronic devices
- Semiconductor device fabrication
- Semiconductor lasers
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Condensed Matter Physics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering