Design and validation of a calibrated orifice meter for sub-500 liter per minute flow rate applications

Brett C. Ramirez, Guilherme D.N. Maia, Angela Renee Miller, Daniel William Shike, Richard S Gates, Luis F Rodriguez

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Accurate and reliable ventilation rate is an essential input and can be a major source of uncertainty in gas emission studies applied to controlled livestock systems. High flow and low operating pressures in animal emission research applications present a unique and costly challenge for volumetric flow measuring instruments. Orifice meters are differential pressure flow meters that provide accurate, economical, and reliable flow measurement and may be found in many industrial processes and engineering applications. Six orifice meters were designed and fabricated following ASHRAE and ASME guidance for flow measurement to provide a maximum of 510 lpm based on ventilation requirements for beef cattle in open circuit respiration chambers. The orifice meters were constructed with a 50.8 mm (2 in.) diameter PVC pipe for the entry and exit sections, a 3.175 mm thick acrylic orifice plate with a 20.6 mm diameter concentric beveled orifice, and four flange taps on the upstream and downstream sides of the orifice plate. A calibration reference was constructed with a wind chamber and nozzle using the same components of ventilation system. Concurrent differential pressure measurements across the calibration reference and the orifice meter were recorded and the corresponding flow rates were calculated using the differential pressures, environmental conditions, and design parameters of each instrument for flow rates from 281 to 510 lpm. Regression analysis showed a linear relationship between the calibration reference and orifice meter regression demonstrated that each orifice meter required an individual calibration curve for best accuracy. Linear regression coefficients (standard error of coefficient) varied from 0.09244 (2.48 E-03) to 1.0699 (2.50 E-03) for all six orifice meters. The standard error of each regression provides an idea of the overall uncertainty over the range of calibration. At a nominal 481 lpm the relative error was from 0.02% to 0.04%. Custom designed, constructed, and, calibrated orifice meters are accurate and cost effective for volumetric ventilation rate measurement in livestock calorimetry and emission studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013
PublisherAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers
Pages3372-3381
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9781627486651
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013
EventAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013 - Kansas City, MO, United States
Duration: Jul 21 2013Jul 24 2013

Publication series

NameAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013
Volume4

Other

OtherAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013
CountryUnited States
CityKansas City, MO
Period7/21/137/24/13

Keywords

  • Beef cattle
  • Bernoulli
  • Calorimetry
  • Emission
  • Greenhouse gas
  • Nozzle
  • Ventilation
  • Wind chamber

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Bioengineering

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Design and validation of a calibrated orifice meter for sub-500 liter per minute flow rate applications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this

    Ramirez, B. C., Maia, G. D. N., Miller, A. R., Shike, D. W., Gates, R. S., & Rodriguez, L. F. (2013). Design and validation of a calibrated orifice meter for sub-500 liter per minute flow rate applications. In American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013 (pp. 3372-3381). (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013; Vol. 4). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.