Design and additive manufacturing of optimized electrodes for energy storage applications

Mariana Desireé Reale Batista, Swetha Chandrasekaran, Bryan D. Moran, Miguel Salazar de Troya, Anica Pinongcos, Zhen Wang, Ryan Hensleigh, Adam Carleton, Manhao Zeng, Thomas Roy, Dun Lin, Xinzhe Xue, Victor A. Beck, Daniel A. Tortorelli, Michael Stadermann, Rayne Zheng, Yat Li, Marcus A. Worsley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Supercapacitors exhibit fast charging/discharging ability and have attracted considerable attention within the automotive, aerospace, and telecommunication industries. Porous carbons, prized for their high electrical conductivity and high surface area, have been attractive candidates for supercapacitor electrodes. Moving to thick electrodes is one strategy to further increase energy density due to a higher volume fraction of active material. However, thick electrodes suffer from sluggish charged species transport, which is why thin electrodes are currently favored. In this work, we investigate the use of computational optimization and additive manufacturing to design and fabricate thick porous electrodes with improved performance. Electrode performance was maximized by designing their morphologies via topology optimization and printing by projection micro stereolithography (PμSL) using commercial resin (PR48). The PR48 resin was then pyrolyzed (PR48-P) to create the final conductive electrode. The optimized PR48-P electrodes exhibited 99% improvement in capacitance compared to control electrodes printed with cubic lattice morphologies. To further improve performance, we formulated a resin combining graphene oxide (GO) and trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA). Electrodes printed with 3 wt% GO in TMPTA exhibited improved capacitance retention after pyrolysis compared to the PR48-P electrodes. This work demonstrates the benefits of using topology optimization to design electrodes and material development to improve functional properties of 3D printable electrodes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)262-269
Number of pages8
StatePublished - Mar 5 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Additive manufacturing
  • Electrode
  • Energy storage
  • Graphene
  • Supercapacitor
  • Topology optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Materials Science


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