V. Namboodiri, N. Rajagopalan

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


To cope with the rising demand for fresh water, desalination of brackish groundwater and seawater is increasingly being viewed as a pragmatic option for augmenting fresh water supplies. The large scale deployment of desalination is likely to demonstrably increase electricity use, greenhouse gas emissions, and other pollutants. The widespread use of desalination also gives rise to the need for environmentally sensitive concentrate management practices. The coupling of desalination with renewable energy, the use of low-grade heat to drive thermal desalination, and increased operational efficiency are avenues to minimize the adverse impacts of desalination while meeting the need for fresh water.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAssuring Purity of Drinking Water
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages22
ISBN (Print)9780123821836
StatePublished - Oct 2013


  • Beneficial use of concentrate
  • Concentrate management (CM)
  • Desalination
  • Dewvaporation
  • Electrodeionization
  • Electrodialysis
  • Electrodialysis reversal
  • Forward osmosis
  • Membrane distillation (MD)
  • Multiple-effect distillation
  • Multistage flash distillation
  • Nanofiltration
  • Reverse osmosis
  • Thermo-Ionic desalination
  • Zero liquid discharge (ZLD)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)


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