This tutorial paper reviews the theory and design of codes for hiding or embedding information in signals such as images, video, audio, graphics, and text. Such codes have also been called watermarking codes; they can be used in a variety of applications, including copyright protection for digital media, content authentication, media forensics, data binding, and covert communications. Some of these applications imply the presence of an adversary attempting to disrupt the transmission of information to the receiver; other applications involve a noisy, generally unknown, communication channel. Our focus is on the mathematical models, fundamental principles, and code design techniques that are applicable to data hiding. The approach draws from basic concepts in information theory, coding theory, game theory, and signal processing, and is illustrated with applications to the problem of hiding data in images.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2083-2125
Number of pages43
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2005


  • Coding theory
  • Data hiding
  • Game theory
  • Image processing
  • Information theory
  • Security
  • Signal processing
  • Watermarking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Computer Science(all)


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