Damage characterization in dimension limestone cladding using noncollinear ultrasonic wave mixing

Megan McGovern, Henrique Reis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A method capable of characterizing artificial weathering damage in dimension stone cladding using access to one side only is presented. Dolomitic limestone test samples with increasing levels of damage were created artificially by exposing undamaged samples to increasing temperature levels of 100°C, 200°C, 300°C, 400°C, 500°C, 600°C, and 700°C for a 90 min period of time. Using access to one side only, these test samples were nondestructively evaluated using a nonlinear approach based upon noncollinear wave mixing, which involves mixing two critically refracted dilatational ultrasonic waves. Criteria were used to assure that the detected scattered wave originated via wave interaction in the limestone and not from nonlinearities in the testing equipment. Bending tests were used to evaluate the flexure strength of beam samples extracted from the artificially weathered samples. It was observed that the percentage of strength reduction is linearly correlated (R2=98) with the temperature to which the specimens were exposed; it was noted that samples exposed to 400°C and 600°C had a strength reduction of 60% and 90%, respectively. It was also observed that results from the noncollinear wave mixing approach correlated well (R2=0.98) with the destructively obtained percentage of strength reduction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number011012
JournalOptical Engineering
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016


  • artificial weathering
  • damage accumulation
  • dolomitic limestone
  • materials characterization
  • noncollinear wave mixing
  • nonlinear response
  • nonlinear ultrasonics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • General Engineering


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