Translation initiation is one of the key events regulated in response to mitogenic stimulation and nutrient availability, tightly coupled to mammalian cell cycle progression and growth. FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein (FRAP; also named mTOR or RAFT1), a member of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-related kinase family, governs a rapamycin-sensitive membrane-to-cytoplasm signaling cascade that modulates translation initiation via p70 S6 kinase (p70s6k) and elF-4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). Our studies reported here reveal a surprising regulatory mechanism of this signaling, which involves cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling of FRAP. By using leptomycin B (LMB), a specific inhibitor of nuclear export receptor Crm1, we show that FRAP is a cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling protein. Inhibition of FRAP nuclear export by LMB coincides with diminished p70s6k activation and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Further investigation by altering FRAP's nuclear shuttling activity with exogenous nuclear import and export signals has yielded results that are consistent with a direct link between nuclear shuttling of FRAP and mitogenic stimulation of p70s6k activation and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, by using a reporter system, we provide evidence suggesting that nuclear shuttling of FRAP regulates mitogen-stimulated rapamycin-sensitive translation initiation. These findings uncover a function for the nucleus in the direct regulation of the protein synthesis machinery via extracellular signals.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Dec 19 2000|
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