Cyanide enhances hydrogen peroxide toxicity by recruiting endogenous iron to trigger catastrophic chromosomal fragmentation

Tulip Mahaseth, Andrei Kuzminov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Hydrogen peroxide (HP) or cyanide (CN) are bacteriostatic at low-millimolar concentrations for growing Escherichia coli, whereas CN+HP mixture is strongly bactericidal. We show that this synergistic toxicity is associated with catastrophic chromosomal fragmentation. Since CN alone does not kill at any concentration, while HP alone kills at 20mM, CN must potentiate HP poisoning. The CN+HP killing is blocked by iron chelators, suggesting Fenton's reaction. Indeed, we show that CN enhances plasmid DNA relaxation due to Fenton's reaction in vitro. However, mutants with elevated iron or HP pools are not acutely sensitive to HP-alone treatment, suggesting that, in addition, in vivoCN recruits iron from intracellular depots. We found that part of the CN-recruited iron pool is managed by ferritin and Dps: ferritin releases iron on cue from CN, while Dps sequesters it, quelling Fenton's reaction. We propose that disrupting intracellular iron trafficking is a common strategy employed by the immune system to kill microbes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)349-367
Number of pages19
JournalMolecular Microbiology
Volume96
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology

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