Current writing assessment practices of kindergarten through second grade educators

Meaghan McKenna, Hope Gerde, Nicolette Grasley-Boy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This article describes the development and administration of the Kindergarten-Second Grade (K-2) Writing Data-Based Decision Making (DBDM) Survey. The K-2 Writing DBDM Survey was developed to learn more about current DBDM practices specific to early writing. A total of 376 educational professionals (175 general education classroom teachers, 42 special education teachers, 118 speech-language pathologists, and 41 specialists (e.g., interventionists, coaches, educators supporting emergent bilinguals) who work with kindergarten, first, and/or second grade students in school settings in the United States participated in this survey study. Results include participant responses to 32 closed-ended items and 2 open-ended items covering five domains: (a) demographic information; (b) assessment(s) types, (c) administration procedures, (d) scoring procedures, and (e) information gathered. Descriptive and regression analyses were applied to summarize the survey results. Findings from this survey indicated that even with limited or no guidance, some educators within all groups of professionals surveyed are assessing students. However, ongoing improvements need to be made to prioritize writing upon school entry. These results remind us of the importance of partnership with educators to ensure accurate understanding of resources available for assessment, current areas of need, and how implementation can feasibly occur in the practice setting when developing and studying approaches to assessment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalReading and Writing
StateE-pub ahead of print - Jan 13 2024


  • Assessment
  • First grade
  • Kindergarten
  • Second grade
  • Writing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Education
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Speech and Hearing


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