Current technologies of electrochemical immunosensors: Perspective on signal amplification

Il Hoon Cho, Jongsung Lee, Jiyeon Kim, Min Soo Kang, Jean Kyung Paik, Seockmo Ku, Hyun Mo Cho, Joseph Irudayaraj, Dong Hyung Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

An electrochemical immunosensor employs antibodies as capture and detection means to produce electrical charges for the quantitative analysis of target molecules. This sensor type can be utilized as a miniaturized device for the detection of point-of-care testing (POCT). Achieving high-performance analysis regarding sensitivity has been one of the key issues with developing this type of biosensor system. Many modern nanotechnology efforts allowed for the development of innovative electrochemical biosensors with high sensitivity by employing various nanomaterials that facilitate the electron transfer and carrying capacity of signal tracers in combination with surface modification and bioconjugation techniques. In this review, we introduce novel nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotube, graphene, indium tin oxide, nanowire and metallic nanoparticles) in order to construct a high-performance electrode. Also, we describe how to increase the number of signal tracers by employing nanomaterials as carriers and making the polymeric enzyme complex associated with redox cycling for signal amplification. The pros and cons of each method are considered throughout this review. We expect that these reviewed strategies for signal enhancement will be applied to the next versions of lateral-flow paper chromatography and microfluidic immunosensor, which are considered the most practical POCT biosensor platforms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number207
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Volume18
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 12 2018
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Electrochemical immunosensor
  • Electrode scaffold
  • Labeling techniques
  • Nanomaterials
  • Point-of-care testing
  • Signal amplification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Cho, I. H., Lee, J., Kim, J., Kang, M. S., Paik, J. K., Ku, S., Cho, H. M., Irudayaraj, J., & Kim, D. H. (2018). Current technologies of electrochemical immunosensors: Perspective on signal amplification. Sensors (Switzerland), 18(1), [207]. https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010207