Current-induced phase partitioning in eutectic indium-tin Pb-free solder interconnect

John P. Daghfal, J. K. Shang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Structural changes from high-density electric currents were examined in a eutectic In-Sn/Cu interconnect. Under electrical loading, Sn and In migrated in opposite directions, creating a partition of the Sn- and In-rich phases between the anode and the cathode. At the anode, a net gain of Sn atoms resulted in the formation of massive, columnar hillocks on the surface, but a net loss of In led to dissolution and disappearance of the In-rich intermetallic layer. At the cathode, the exodus of Sn left valleys adjacent to the In-rich regions on the surface, while the amount of the In-rich phase grew, due to the net influx of In at the expense of the In-rich intermetallic layer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1372-1377
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Electronic Materials
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2007
Externally publishedYes


  • Current stressing
  • Electromigration
  • Hillocks
  • In-Sn solder
  • Interface

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Current-induced phase partitioning in eutectic indium-tin Pb-free solder interconnect'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this