Creation and Validation of a New Socio-built Environment Index Measure of Opioid Overdose Risk for Use in Both Non-urban and Urban Settings

Leslie D. Williams, Marynia Kolak, Christian Villanueva, Danielle C. Ompad, Barbara Tempalski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

A great deal of literature has examined features of the physical built environment as predictors of opioid overdose and other substance use-related outcomes. Other literature suggests that social characteristics of settings are important predictors of substance use outcomes. However, there is a dearth of literature simultaneously measuring both physical and social characteristics of settings in an effort to better predict opioid overdose. There is also a dearth of literature examining built environment as a predictor of overdose in non-urban settings. The present study presents a novel socio-built environment index measure of opioid overdose risk comprised of indicators measuring both social and physical characteristics of settings — and developed for use in both urban and non-urban settings — and assesses its validity among 565 urban, suburban, and rural New Jersey municipalities. We found that this novel measure had good convergent validity, based on significant positive associations with a social vulnerability index and crime rates, and significant negative associations with a municipal revitalization index and high school graduation rates. The index measure had good discriminant validity, based on lack of association with three different racial isolation indices. Finally, our index measure had good health outcome-based criterion validity, based on significant positive associations with recent overdose mortality. There were no major differences between rural, suburban, and urban municipalities in validity analysis findings. This promising new socio-built environment risk index measure could improve ability to target and allocate resources to settings with the greatest risk, in order to improve their impact on overdose outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1048-1061
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Urban Health
Volume100
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2023

Keywords

  • Built Environment
  • Measure Validation
  • Opioid Overdose
  • Risk Index Measure
  • Social Characteristics of Settings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Urban Studies

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Creation and Validation of a New Socio-built Environment Index Measure of Opioid Overdose Risk for Use in Both Non-urban and Urban Settings'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this