Crack-assisted, localized deformation of van der waals materials for enhanced strain confinement

Juyoung Leem, Yeageun Lee, Michael Cai Wang, Jin Myung Kim, Jihun Mun, Md Farhadul Haque, Sang Woo Kang, Sungwoo Nam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The crumpling of two-dimensional (2D) materials is one of the most widely used ways to create three-dimensional (3D) out-of-plane structures from 2D materials and to apply in-plane strain for strain-induced material property modulation. Although the elastic compressive strain induced crumpling of 2D materials is a simple and versatile way to form 3D structures, the resulting structures are rather simple where crumples are formed in a delocalized manner. Here, we report a new approach inspired by crack lithography to localize deformation and achieve localized crumpling of 2D materials. As a result, a mixed-dimensional structure composed of flat (2D) and crumpled (3D) structure is formed monolithically in 2D materials. We present structural analysis of our mixed-dimensional structure of graphene, where the localized prestrain was amplified to be 330% of the macroscale prestrain. In addition, we demonstrate the material densification and the strain localizations of our mixed-dimensional structure of monolayer MoS2 and graphene based on Raman and photoluminescence spectral characterizations. Finally, our mixed-dimensional graphene structure is fabricated into a stretchable strain sensor, where it exhibits four times enhanced gauge factor compared to that of delocalized crumpled graphene.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number044001
Journal2D Materials
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 24 2019


  • 2D materials
  • crack-lithography
  • crumpling
  • strain engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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