Cost-related medication non-adherence among U.S. adults with diabetes

Hyojung Kang, Jennifer Mason Lobo, Soyoun Kim, Min Woong Sohn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: To examine factors that affect cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN), defined as taking medication less than as prescribed because of cost, among adults with diabetes and to determine their relative contribution in explaining CRN. Methods: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data for 2013–2014 were used to identify individuals with diabetes and their CRN. We modeled CRN as a function of financial factors, regimen complexity, and other contextual factors including diabetes care, lifestyle, and health factors. Dominance analysis was performed to rank these factors by relative importance. Results: CRN among U.S. adults with diabetes was 16.5%. Respondents with annual income <$50,000 and without health insurance were more likely to report CRN, compared to those with income ≥$50,000 and those with insurance, respectively. Insulin users had 1.24 times higher risk of CRN compared to those not on insulin. Contextual factors that significantly affected CRN included diabetes care factors, lifestyle factors, and comorbid depression, arthritis, and COPD/asthma. Dominance analysis showed health insurance was the most important factor for respondents <65 and depression was the most important factor for respondents ≥65. Conclusions: In addition to traditional risk factors of CRN, compliance with annual recommendations for diabetes and healthy lifestyle were associated with lower CRN. Policies and social supports that address these contextual factors may help improve CRN.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)24-33
Number of pages10
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
StatePublished - Sep 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Diabetes
  • Income
  • Insurance
  • Lifestyle
  • Medication adherence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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