Chest pain with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD) occurs more frequently in women than in men and is mainly related to coronary microvascular disease (CMD). The majority of CMD patients are postmenopausal women, suggesting a role for lack of estrogens in the development and progression of CMD. Patients are often discharged without a clear treatment plan due to the limited understanding of etiology and diagnostic parameters of CMD and have significantly higher rates of future cardiovascular events. Thus, there is a need for a better understanding of the underlying biology, and CMD-specific diagnostic tests and therapies. In this article, we reviewed recent studies on CMD, estrogen action in coronary microvasculature, and diagnosis and treatment options for CMD in postmenopausal women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)228-238
Number of pages11
JournalTrends in Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2020


  • HRT
  • coronary microvascular dysfunction
  • diagnostic test
  • estrogen receptor signaling
  • estrogens
  • menopause

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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