Flame retardant tris(2-chloroethyl phosphate) (TCP) is successfully encapsulated in core-shell poly(urea-formaldehyde) microcapsules by in situ polymerization. The microcapsules are electrochemically stable in lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery electrolytes and thermally stable to ca. 200 °C. Thermal triggering of these microcapsules at higher temperatures ruptures the shell wall, releasing the liquid core (flame retardant), and NMR spectroscopy confirms the presence of the flame retardant in the electrolyte solution. Li-ion pouch cell experiments demonstrate that microencapsulation of TCP and its incorporation into the battery electrolyte provide latent fire retardants that improve battery safety while maintaining inherent battery performance and cycling capability.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)