Conversion of external ventricular drains to ventriculoperitoneal shunts after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

Effects of site and protein/red blood cell counts on shunt infection and malfunction - Clinical article

Stylianos Rammos, Jeffrey Klopfenstein, Lori Augsburger, Huan Wang, Anne Wagenbach, Jennifer Poston, Giuseppe Lanzino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Object. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of shunt infection in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after converting an external ventricular drain (EVD) to a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt using the existing EVD site. The second purpose was to assess the risk of shunt malfunction after converting the EVD to a permanent shunt irrespective of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and red blood cell (RBC) counts. Methods. Data obtained in 80 consecutive adult patients (18 men and 62 women, mean age 60.8 years, range 33-85 years) who underwent direct conversion of an EVD to a VP shunt for post-SAH hydrocephalus between August 2002 and March 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. In each patient, the existing EVD site was used to pass the proximal shunt catheter. In no patient was VP shunt insertion delayed based on preoperative RBC or protein counts. Results. The mean period of external ventricular drainage before VP shunt placement was 14.1 days (range 3-45 days). No patient suffered ventriculitis. The mean perioperative CSF protein level was 124 mg/dl (range 17-516 mg/dl). The mean and median perioperative RBC values in CSF were 14,203 RBCs/mm3 and 4600 RBCs/mm3 (range 119-290,000/mm3), respectively. No patient was lost to follow-up. The mean follow-up duration was 24 months (range 2-53 months). Three patients (3.8%) had shunt malfunction related to obstruction of the shunt system after 15 days, 2 months, and 18 months, respectively. There were no shunt-related infections. No patient suffered a clinically significant hemorrhage from ventricular catheter placement after VP shunt insertion. Conclusions. In adult patients with aneurysmal SAH, conversion of an EVD to a VP shunt can be safely done using the same EVD site. In this defined patient population, protein and RBC counts in the CSF do not seem to affect shunt survival adversely. Thus, conversion of an EVD to VP shunt should not be delayed because of an elevated protein or RBC count.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1001-1004
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery
Volume109
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2008

Fingerprint

Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt
Erythrocyte Count
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
Infection
Proteins
Cerebrospinal Fluid Proteins
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Catheters
Erythrocytes
Lost to Follow-Up
Hydrocephalus
Blood Proteins
Drainage
Hemorrhage

Keywords

  • Communicating hydrocephalus
  • Shunt infection
  • Shunt malfunction
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Conversion of external ventricular drains to ventriculoperitoneal shunts after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage : Effects of site and protein/red blood cell counts on shunt infection and malfunction - Clinical article. / Rammos, Stylianos; Klopfenstein, Jeffrey; Augsburger, Lori; Wang, Huan; Wagenbach, Anne; Poston, Jennifer; Lanzino, Giuseppe.

In: Journal of Neurosurgery, Vol. 109, No. 6, 01.01.2008, p. 1001-1004.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rammos, Stylianos ; Klopfenstein, Jeffrey ; Augsburger, Lori ; Wang, Huan ; Wagenbach, Anne ; Poston, Jennifer ; Lanzino, Giuseppe. / Conversion of external ventricular drains to ventriculoperitoneal shunts after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage : Effects of site and protein/red blood cell counts on shunt infection and malfunction - Clinical article. In: Journal of Neurosurgery. 2008 ; Vol. 109, No. 6. pp. 1001-1004.
@article{6db8c56569f3414d8dd8aa1912af59e8,
title = "Conversion of external ventricular drains to ventriculoperitoneal shunts after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: Effects of site and protein/red blood cell counts on shunt infection and malfunction - Clinical article",
abstract = "Object. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of shunt infection in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after converting an external ventricular drain (EVD) to a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt using the existing EVD site. The second purpose was to assess the risk of shunt malfunction after converting the EVD to a permanent shunt irrespective of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and red blood cell (RBC) counts. Methods. Data obtained in 80 consecutive adult patients (18 men and 62 women, mean age 60.8 years, range 33-85 years) who underwent direct conversion of an EVD to a VP shunt for post-SAH hydrocephalus between August 2002 and March 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. In each patient, the existing EVD site was used to pass the proximal shunt catheter. In no patient was VP shunt insertion delayed based on preoperative RBC or protein counts. Results. The mean period of external ventricular drainage before VP shunt placement was 14.1 days (range 3-45 days). No patient suffered ventriculitis. The mean perioperative CSF protein level was 124 mg/dl (range 17-516 mg/dl). The mean and median perioperative RBC values in CSF were 14,203 RBCs/mm3 and 4600 RBCs/mm3 (range 119-290,000/mm3), respectively. No patient was lost to follow-up. The mean follow-up duration was 24 months (range 2-53 months). Three patients (3.8{\%}) had shunt malfunction related to obstruction of the shunt system after 15 days, 2 months, and 18 months, respectively. There were no shunt-related infections. No patient suffered a clinically significant hemorrhage from ventricular catheter placement after VP shunt insertion. Conclusions. In adult patients with aneurysmal SAH, conversion of an EVD to a VP shunt can be safely done using the same EVD site. In this defined patient population, protein and RBC counts in the CSF do not seem to affect shunt survival adversely. Thus, conversion of an EVD to VP shunt should not be delayed because of an elevated protein or RBC count.",
keywords = "Communicating hydrocephalus, Shunt infection, Shunt malfunction, Subarachnoid hemorrhage",
author = "Stylianos Rammos and Jeffrey Klopfenstein and Lori Augsburger and Huan Wang and Anne Wagenbach and Jennifer Poston and Giuseppe Lanzino",
year = "2008",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3171/JNS.2008.109.12.1001",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "109",
pages = "1001--1004",
journal = "Journal of Neurosurgery",
issn = "0022-3085",
publisher = "American Association of Neurological Surgeons",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Conversion of external ventricular drains to ventriculoperitoneal shunts after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

T2 - Effects of site and protein/red blood cell counts on shunt infection and malfunction - Clinical article

AU - Rammos, Stylianos

AU - Klopfenstein, Jeffrey

AU - Augsburger, Lori

AU - Wang, Huan

AU - Wagenbach, Anne

AU - Poston, Jennifer

AU - Lanzino, Giuseppe

PY - 2008/1/1

Y1 - 2008/1/1

N2 - Object. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of shunt infection in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after converting an external ventricular drain (EVD) to a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt using the existing EVD site. The second purpose was to assess the risk of shunt malfunction after converting the EVD to a permanent shunt irrespective of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and red blood cell (RBC) counts. Methods. Data obtained in 80 consecutive adult patients (18 men and 62 women, mean age 60.8 years, range 33-85 years) who underwent direct conversion of an EVD to a VP shunt for post-SAH hydrocephalus between August 2002 and March 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. In each patient, the existing EVD site was used to pass the proximal shunt catheter. In no patient was VP shunt insertion delayed based on preoperative RBC or protein counts. Results. The mean period of external ventricular drainage before VP shunt placement was 14.1 days (range 3-45 days). No patient suffered ventriculitis. The mean perioperative CSF protein level was 124 mg/dl (range 17-516 mg/dl). The mean and median perioperative RBC values in CSF were 14,203 RBCs/mm3 and 4600 RBCs/mm3 (range 119-290,000/mm3), respectively. No patient was lost to follow-up. The mean follow-up duration was 24 months (range 2-53 months). Three patients (3.8%) had shunt malfunction related to obstruction of the shunt system after 15 days, 2 months, and 18 months, respectively. There were no shunt-related infections. No patient suffered a clinically significant hemorrhage from ventricular catheter placement after VP shunt insertion. Conclusions. In adult patients with aneurysmal SAH, conversion of an EVD to a VP shunt can be safely done using the same EVD site. In this defined patient population, protein and RBC counts in the CSF do not seem to affect shunt survival adversely. Thus, conversion of an EVD to VP shunt should not be delayed because of an elevated protein or RBC count.

AB - Object. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of shunt infection in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) after converting an external ventricular drain (EVD) to a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt using the existing EVD site. The second purpose was to assess the risk of shunt malfunction after converting the EVD to a permanent shunt irrespective of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein and red blood cell (RBC) counts. Methods. Data obtained in 80 consecutive adult patients (18 men and 62 women, mean age 60.8 years, range 33-85 years) who underwent direct conversion of an EVD to a VP shunt for post-SAH hydrocephalus between August 2002 and March 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. In each patient, the existing EVD site was used to pass the proximal shunt catheter. In no patient was VP shunt insertion delayed based on preoperative RBC or protein counts. Results. The mean period of external ventricular drainage before VP shunt placement was 14.1 days (range 3-45 days). No patient suffered ventriculitis. The mean perioperative CSF protein level was 124 mg/dl (range 17-516 mg/dl). The mean and median perioperative RBC values in CSF were 14,203 RBCs/mm3 and 4600 RBCs/mm3 (range 119-290,000/mm3), respectively. No patient was lost to follow-up. The mean follow-up duration was 24 months (range 2-53 months). Three patients (3.8%) had shunt malfunction related to obstruction of the shunt system after 15 days, 2 months, and 18 months, respectively. There were no shunt-related infections. No patient suffered a clinically significant hemorrhage from ventricular catheter placement after VP shunt insertion. Conclusions. In adult patients with aneurysmal SAH, conversion of an EVD to a VP shunt can be safely done using the same EVD site. In this defined patient population, protein and RBC counts in the CSF do not seem to affect shunt survival adversely. Thus, conversion of an EVD to VP shunt should not be delayed because of an elevated protein or RBC count.

KW - Communicating hydrocephalus

KW - Shunt infection

KW - Shunt malfunction

KW - Subarachnoid hemorrhage

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=58149375489&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=58149375489&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3171/JNS.2008.109.12.1001

DO - 10.3171/JNS.2008.109.12.1001

M3 - Article

VL - 109

SP - 1001

EP - 1004

JO - Journal of Neurosurgery

JF - Journal of Neurosurgery

SN - 0022-3085

IS - 6

ER -