Microbial iron reduction is a ubiquitous biogeochemical process driven by diverse microorganisms in a variety of environments. However, it is often difficult to separate the biological from the geochemical controls on bioreduction of Fe(III) oxides. Here, we investigated the primary driving factor(s) that mediate secondary iron mineral formation over a broad range of environmental conditions using a single dissimilatory iron reducer, Orenia metallireducens strain Z6. A total of 17 distinct geochemical conditions were tested with differing pH (6.5-8.5), temperature (22-50C), salinity (2-20% NaCl), anions (phosphate and sulfate), electron shuttle (anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate), and Fe(III) oxide mineralogy (ferrihydrite, lepidocrocite, goethite, hematite, and magnetite). The observed rates and extent of iron reduction differed significantly with kint between 0.186 and 1.702 mmol L-1 day-1 and Fe(II) production ranging from 6.3% to 83.7% of the initial Fe(III). Using X-ray absorption and scattering techniques (EXAFS and XRD), we identified and assessed the relationship between secondary minerals and the specific environmental conditions. It was inferred that the observed bifurcation of the mineralization pathways may be mediated by differing extents of Fe(II) sorption on the remaining Fe(III) minerals. These results expand our understanding of the controls on biomineralization during microbial iron reduction and aid the development of practical applications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Chemistry