Contextuality analysis of impossible figures

Víctor H. Cervantes, Ehtibar N. Dzhafarov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper has two purposes. One is to demonstrate contextuality analysis of systems of epistemic random variables. The other is to evaluate the performance of a new, hierarchical version of the measure of (non)contextuality introduced in earlier publications. As objects of analysis we use impossible figures of the kind created by the Penroses and Escher. We make no assumptions as to how an impossible figure is perceived, taking it instead as a fixed physical object allowing one of several deterministic descriptions. Systems of epistemic random variables are obtained by probabilistically mixing these deterministic systems. This probabilistic mixture reflects our uncertainty or lack of knowledge rather than random variability in the frequentist sense.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number981
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2020


  • Contextuality
  • Deterministic systems
  • Epistemic probabilities
  • Impossible figures
  • Measures of contextuality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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