Content validation of a novel robotic surgical simulator

Stéfanie A. Seixas-Mikelus, Andrew P. Stegemann, Thenkurussi Kesavadas, Govindarajan Srimathveeravalli, Gughan Sathyaseelan, Rameela Chandrasekhar, Gregory E. Wilding, James O. Peabody, Khurshid A. Guru

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE • To assess the content validity of an early prototype robotic simulator. Minimally invasive surgery poses challenges for training future surgeons. The Robotic Surgical Simulator (RoSS) is a novel virtual reality simulator for the da Vinci Surgical System. PATIENTS AND METHODS • Participants attending the 2010 International Robotic Urology Symposium were invited to experience RoSS. Afterwards, participants completed a survey regarding the appropriateness of the simulator as a teaching tool. RESULTS • Forty-two subjects including surgeons experienced with robotics (n= 31) and novices (n= 11) participated in this study. • Eighty per cent of the entire cohort had an average of 4 years of experience with robot-assisted surgery. • Eleven (26%) novices lacked independent robot-assisted experience. The expert group comprised 17 (41%) surgeons averaging 881 (160-2200) robot-assisted cases. Experts rated the 'clutch control' virtual simulation task as a good (71%) or excellent (29%) teaching tool. • Seventy-eight per cent rated the 'ball place' task as good or excellent but 22% rated it as poor. • Twenty-seven per cent rated the 'needle removal' task as an excellent teaching tool, 60% rated it good and 13% rated it poor. Ninety-one per cent rated the 'fourth arm tissue removal' task as good or excellent. Ninety-four per cent responded that RoSS would be useful for training purposes. Eighty-eight per cent felt that RoSS would be an appropriate training and testing format before operating room experience for residents. • Seventy-nine per cent indicated that RoSS could be used for privileging or certifying in robotic surgery. CONCLUSION • Results based on expert evaluation of RoSS as a teaching modality illustrate that RoSS has appropriate content validity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1130-1135
Number of pages6
JournalBJU International
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • laparoscopy
  • minimally invasive surgery
  • robot
  • surgical education
  • training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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