Consumer Attitudes And Expectations Of Ginseng Food Products Assessed By Focus Groups And Conjoint Analysis

Hee Sook Chung, Hee Do Hong, Kyungtack Kim, Chang Won Cho, Howard R. Moskowitz, Soo Yeun Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Ginseng food products in the U.S.A. have mostly been limited to beverages despite the growth of functional foods market. The objectives of the study were to: (1) probe consumer attitudes and expectations of ginseng food products in the U.S.A., and (2) identify ginseng food product concept(s) that possess market potential in the U.S.A. Focus group panel (n=14) experienced limited types of ginseng food products from the Asian market and suggested that new ginseng food products be developed on the basis of preexisting product types in the U.S.A. Conjoint analysis (n=400) was performed with four categories and five elements from each category, which were generated based on findings from preceding focus groups. Participants had a low level of initial interest in ginseng food products. "Sweetness" and "ginseng chocolate" had the highest utility values. Findings suggested that the original ginseng flavors, including bitterness and earthiness, be minimized in order to establish potential for success in the U.S. market. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: This present work demonstrates consumers' insights and expectations of ginseng food products as well as ginseng food product concepts that drive consumers' interests, which have not been extensively researched in the U.S.A. Moreover, findings from the study demonstrate U.S. consumers' knowledge and insights of ginseng and its health effects. These will help food manufacturers understand the consumers who are latent in purchasing ginseng food products in the market and develop ginseng food products that will ensure their success in the U.S. market. Segmentation of consumers based on the pattern of their responses to the concept elements will be beneficial for food-marketing experts to establish marketing strategies. New ginseng food products where the findings from the study are applied are expected to increase consumers' intent to purchase the products, which have been known as containing numerous bioactive compounds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)346-357
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Sensory Studies
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 1 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Sensory Systems


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