Consumer acceptance of reduced sodium white and multigrain bread: Impact of flavor enhancement and ingredient information on sample liking

Aubrey N. Dunteman, Soo Yeun Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Abstract: Chronic consumption of sodium in quantities exceeding recommendations has led to sodium being designated as a nutrient of health concern for overconsumption. As a result of the prevalence of sodium overconsumption, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released voluntary sodium reduction goals for a wide variety of products on both short- and long-term timespans. As food palatability may decrease when sodium is reduced, flavor enhancers such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) may provide a promising solution to mitigate such palatability loss. The objective of this research was to investigate consumer acceptance of white and multigrain breads with either a 43% or 60% reduction in sodium content and with and without MSG as well as to investigate the influence of information on consumer acceptance of these breads under blind, informed, and informed with education conditions. Seventy-eight frequent bread consumers participated in the evaluations. A significant difference was evidenced across breads with different levels of sodium content and MSG status, although no difference was seen across the different evaluation conditions. Consumer segmentation found multiple consumer clusters showing different liking patterns of the bread treatments for both white and multigrain breads. Breads with sodium content set at the FDA's long-term goal with and without MSG were liked no differently in nearly all attributes evaluated than the full-sodium bread demonstrating the feasibility of producing acceptable reduced-sodium breads. Future research characterizing the predominant sensory attributes of full-sodium and reduced-sodium breads with and without MSG would be valuable for identifying the drivers of liking in such products. Practical Application: The findings of our study suggest that consumer liking of reduced sodium white and multigrain breads could be improved with the addition of monosodium glutamate. Increasing the acceptance of reduced sodium food products could help to reduce the risk of hypertension and subsequently heart attacks and stroke for the American population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)417-429
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of food science
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • consumer
  • food additives
  • sensory analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


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