Construct validation of the key components of fundamental skills of robotic surgery (FSRS) curriculum - A multi-institution prospective study

Syed J. Raza, Saied Froghi, Ashirwad Chowriappa, Kamran Ahmed, Erinn Field, Andrew P. Stegemann, Shabnam Rehman, Mohamed Sharif, Yi Shi, Gregory E. Wilding, Thenkurussi Kesavadas, Jihad Kaouk, Khurshid A. Guru

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background Recent incorporation of simulation in surgical training necessitates developing validated platforms for training and assessment. A tool should fulfill the fundamental criteria of validation. Objective To report the ability of a simulation-based robotic training curriculum - Fundamental Skills of Robotic Surgery (FSRS) - to assess and distinguish between different performance levels of operator experience (construct validity). Materials and Methods This is a prospective multicenter observational study. Participants were classified as novice (0 robotic cases performed) and experts (>150 robotic cases performed). All participants were required to complete 4 key tasks in a previously validated FSRS curriculum: ball placement, coordinated tool control, fourth arm control, and needle handling and exchange. Using the metrics available in the simulator software, the performances of each group were compared to evaluate construct validation. Results A convenience cohort of 61 surgeons participated. Novice group (n = 49) consisted of 41 fellows/residents/medical students and 8 trained open/laparoscopic surgeons, whereas expert group consisted of 12 surgeons. The novice group had no previous robotic console experience, whereas the expert group had >150 prior robotic cases experience. An overall significant difference was observed in favor of the expert group in 4 skill sets (p < 0.05). Time to complete all 4 tasks was significantly shorter in the expert group (p < 0.001). The expert group displayed significantly lesser tool collision (p = 0.002) and reduced tissue damage (p < 0.001). In performing most tasks, the expert group's camera (p < 0.001) and clutch usage (p < 0.001) was significantly greater when compared with the novice group. Conclusion The components of the FSRS curriculum showed construct validity. This validation would help in effectively implementing this curriculum for robot-assisted surgical training.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)316-324
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Surgical Education
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • FSRS
  • curriculum
  • robot-assisted surgical training
  • simulation
  • validity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Education


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