Constraints to Hunting Between Male and Female Hunters in Illinois

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution


Throughout the past 2 decades sales of hunting license have declined sharply in most states in the U.S. as a result, many state agency are devoting greater focus on developing hunter recruitment, retention and reengagement (R3) programs. As part of the R3 efforts for Illinois, we examined perceived constraints to hunting participation between male and female hunters. Data were collected as part of the annual Illinois Hunter Harvest Survey. We used a repeat-mail survey of 5,000 randomly sampled license purchasers in Illinois and, in order to obtain adequate representation of female hunters, surveyed an additional female license buyers. We investigated financial, managerial, and subjective (personal) constraints using a 5-point unipolar scale. We received 2,349 (42%) response, with 79% males and 21% females. Mean age for male hunters was 53 years, mean age among females was 44 years. Males averaged 32 years of hunting experience, whereas females had 14 years. Females reported hunting private land more than males (77% to 64%). No significant differences were found between the two groups for financial constraints, whereas a greater proportion of males (M=1.45) than females (M=1.29) (χ2=10.57, p=.032) found confusing hunting regulations a reason to not hunt more often. Males also reported greater constraints related to finding access close to home (χ2=19.74,p<.001) and lack of hunting partners (χ2=12.25,p=.016). Females reported greater levels of constraint due to childcare obligations (χ2=12.65 , p=.013), hunting skills/knowledge (χ2=12.56,p=.014), and competition from other recreation activities (χ2=15.29,p=.004). Both groups expressed work and family commitments as the factor with greatest constraint toward participation. Discussion will center on interrelationships between types of hunting, access, and traditional and nontraditional gender roles on hunting participation.
Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMidwest Fish and Wildlife Conference 2020
StatePublished - 2020


  • INHS


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