Consistency, Specificity, and Correlates of Negative Emotions

Howard Berenbaum, Frank Fujita, Joyce Pfennig

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Four studies with college student participants examined the consistency, specificity, and correlates of sadness, fear, and anger. Study 1 measured emotions with daily diaries, and Study 2 examined the relationship between trait emotions and state emotions. Studies 1 and 2 indicated that specific negative emotions are temporally stable, are positively correlated, and provide information above and beyond that provided by other negative emotions. Study 3 found that negative emotions are differentially associated with different facets of cognitive style, as measured by questionnaires that examined dysfunctional attitudes and attributions concerning negative events. Study 4 indicated that negative emotions are differentially associated with different facets of response style, as measured by the degree to which individuals described their thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to hypothetical events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)342-352
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of personality and social psychology
Volume68
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

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