Conductimetric immunosensor for atrazine detection based on antibodies labelled with gold nanoparticles

Enrique Valera, Javier Ramón-Azcón, F. J. Sanchez, M. P. Marco, Ángel Rodríguez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A novel conductimetric immunosensor for atrazine detection has been designed and developed. This immunosensor is mainly based on antibodies labelled with gold nanoparticles. Additionally, the immunosensor consists of an array of two coplanar non-passivated interdigitated metallic μ-electrodes (IDμE) and immunoreagents specifically developed to detect this pesticide. The chemical recognition layer was covalent immobilized on the interdigital space. Immunochemical detection of the concentration of atrazine is achieved by a competitive reaction that occurs before the inclusion of the labelled antibodies. It is shown that the gold nanoparticles provide an amplification of the conductive signal and hence makes possible to detect atrazine by means of simple DC measurements. The conductimetric immunosensor and its biofunctionalization steps have been characterized by chemical affinity methods and impedance spectroscopy. This work describes the immunosensor structure, fabrication, physico-chemical and analytical characterization, and the immunosensor response using conductivity measurements. The immunosensor developed detects atrazine with limits of detection in the order of 0.1-1 μg L-1, far below the maximum residue level (MRL) (100 μg L-1) established by European Union (EU) for residues of this herbicide in the wine. Although in this paper the competitive reaction occurs in buffer, an initial study of the wine matrix effect is also described.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)95-103
Number of pages9
JournalSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 28 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibodies
  • Atrazine
  • Conductive measurements
  • Food safety
  • Gold nanoparticles
  • Immunosensor
  • Impedance spectroscopy
  • Interdigitated μ-electrodes
  • Wine matrix effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Instrumentation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry


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