Concentrations and size distributions of airborne particulate matter and bacteria in an experimental aviary laying-hen housing system

W. Zheng, Y. Zhao, H. Xin, B. Li, Richard S Gates, Yuanhui Zhang, M. Soupir

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

High levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) and bacteria may exist in animal housing, which can be detrimental to the health of animals and workers. The sizes of these bioaerosols determine their aerial-transport behaviors and depositions in the respiratory tracts of animals and humans. However, little is known regarding the size distribution of airborne PM and bacteria in livestock houses, especially alternative animal housing systems that aim to enhance animal welfare, such as aviary hen-housing systems. The study reported here was therefore conducted to characterize the concentrations (both in count and in mass) and size distributions of airborne bacteria (in count) and PM (both in count and in mass) in a pilot-scale welfare-oriented aviary laying-hen setting. Thirty-four laying hens were kept in the environmentally-controlled aviary setting (L x W x H = 2.2 x 2.3 x 2.4 m) for 3 months. The hens were given a 16L:8D photoperiod (lights on at 6:00h and off at 22:00h); and access to the litter floor from 12.00h to 22:00h daily. Airborne bacteria and PM were simultaneously sampled for 15 min at 1.5 m height above the litter floor every fourth day at 5:45h, 9:45h, 13:45h, 17:45h, and 21:45h. Concentrations of airborne bacteria at six size ranges (0.65-1.1 μm, 1.1-2.1 μm, 2.1-3.3 μm, 3.3-4.7 μm, 4.7-7.1 μm, and >7.1 μm) and the PM concentrations (0.5-20 μm) were determined. The daily mean (±SD) concentrations of PM count, PM mass and total bacterial concentration were, respectively, 1.70 (± 0.66) ×107 particles m -3, 1.12 (± 0.47) mg m-3 and 3.39 (± 2.38) ×105 CFU m-3. Concentrations of PM and total bacteria during the litter-access period (12:00h-22:00h) were significantly higher than those during the rest of the day when the hens were off the floor (P <0.05). Median diameters for the PM count and mass were, respectively, 2.11 μm and 7.45 μm. PM <10 μm accounted for more than 95% of the total PM count, whereas PM >2.5 μm accounted for more than 90% of the total PM mass. The majority (>95%) of the airborne bacteria were contained in particles >3.3 μm. Airborne bacteria count was positively related to PM mass concentration (P <0.05) with a slope of 3.84(± 2.70) ×705 CFU mg-1 PM. Results of the study are useful for improving understanding of transport behaviors of aerosols in the aviary hen setting, assessing potential respiratory risks to humans and animals, and exploring mitigation techniques.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013
PublisherAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers
Pages3706-3717
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)9781627486651
StatePublished - Jan 1 2013
EventAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013 - Kansas City, MO, United States
Duration: Jul 21 2013Jul 24 2013

Publication series

NameAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013
Volume5

Other

OtherAmerican Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013
CountryUnited States
CityKansas City, MO
Period7/21/137/24/13

Fingerprint

aviaries
Particulate Matter
laying hens
Bacteria
particulates
Animals
airborne microorganisms
bacteria
hens
animal housing
bioaerosols
Agriculture
Aerosols
aerosols
Health
respiratory system
animal health
Antennas
animal welfare
animals

Keywords

  • Airborne bacteria
  • Cage-free
  • Particulate matter
  • Size distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Bioengineering

Cite this

Zheng, W., Zhao, Y., Xin, H., Li, B., Gates, R. S., Zhang, Y., & Soupir, M. (2013). Concentrations and size distributions of airborne particulate matter and bacteria in an experimental aviary laying-hen housing system. In American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013 (pp. 3706-3717). (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013; Vol. 5). American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

Concentrations and size distributions of airborne particulate matter and bacteria in an experimental aviary laying-hen housing system. / Zheng, W.; Zhao, Y.; Xin, H.; Li, B.; Gates, Richard S; Zhang, Yuanhui; Soupir, M.

American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2013. p. 3706-3717 (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013; Vol. 5).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Zheng, W, Zhao, Y, Xin, H, Li, B, Gates, RS, Zhang, Y & Soupir, M 2013, Concentrations and size distributions of airborne particulate matter and bacteria in an experimental aviary laying-hen housing system. in American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013, vol. 5, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, pp. 3706-3717, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, Kansas City, MO, United States, 7/21/13.
Zheng W, Zhao Y, Xin H, Li B, Gates RS, Zhang Y et al. Concentrations and size distributions of airborne particulate matter and bacteria in an experimental aviary laying-hen housing system. In American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 2013. p. 3706-3717. (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013).
Zheng, W. ; Zhao, Y. ; Xin, H. ; Li, B. ; Gates, Richard S ; Zhang, Yuanhui ; Soupir, M. / Concentrations and size distributions of airborne particulate matter and bacteria in an experimental aviary laying-hen housing system. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, 2013. pp. 3706-3717 (American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2013, ASABE 2013).
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N2 - High levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) and bacteria may exist in animal housing, which can be detrimental to the health of animals and workers. The sizes of these bioaerosols determine their aerial-transport behaviors and depositions in the respiratory tracts of animals and humans. However, little is known regarding the size distribution of airborne PM and bacteria in livestock houses, especially alternative animal housing systems that aim to enhance animal welfare, such as aviary hen-housing systems. The study reported here was therefore conducted to characterize the concentrations (both in count and in mass) and size distributions of airborne bacteria (in count) and PM (both in count and in mass) in a pilot-scale welfare-oriented aviary laying-hen setting. Thirty-four laying hens were kept in the environmentally-controlled aviary setting (L x W x H = 2.2 x 2.3 x 2.4 m) for 3 months. The hens were given a 16L:8D photoperiod (lights on at 6:00h and off at 22:00h); and access to the litter floor from 12.00h to 22:00h daily. Airborne bacteria and PM were simultaneously sampled for 15 min at 1.5 m height above the litter floor every fourth day at 5:45h, 9:45h, 13:45h, 17:45h, and 21:45h. Concentrations of airborne bacteria at six size ranges (0.65-1.1 μm, 1.1-2.1 μm, 2.1-3.3 μm, 3.3-4.7 μm, 4.7-7.1 μm, and >7.1 μm) and the PM concentrations (0.5-20 μm) were determined. The daily mean (±SD) concentrations of PM count, PM mass and total bacterial concentration were, respectively, 1.70 (± 0.66) ×107 particles m -3, 1.12 (± 0.47) mg m-3 and 3.39 (± 2.38) ×105 CFU m-3. Concentrations of PM and total bacteria during the litter-access period (12:00h-22:00h) were significantly higher than those during the rest of the day when the hens were off the floor (P <0.05). Median diameters for the PM count and mass were, respectively, 2.11 μm and 7.45 μm. PM <10 μm accounted for more than 95% of the total PM count, whereas PM >2.5 μm accounted for more than 90% of the total PM mass. The majority (>95%) of the airborne bacteria were contained in particles >3.3 μm. Airborne bacteria count was positively related to PM mass concentration (P <0.05) with a slope of 3.84(± 2.70) ×705 CFU mg-1 PM. Results of the study are useful for improving understanding of transport behaviors of aerosols in the aviary hen setting, assessing potential respiratory risks to humans and animals, and exploring mitigation techniques.

AB - High levels of airborne particulate matter (PM) and bacteria may exist in animal housing, which can be detrimental to the health of animals and workers. The sizes of these bioaerosols determine their aerial-transport behaviors and depositions in the respiratory tracts of animals and humans. However, little is known regarding the size distribution of airborne PM and bacteria in livestock houses, especially alternative animal housing systems that aim to enhance animal welfare, such as aviary hen-housing systems. The study reported here was therefore conducted to characterize the concentrations (both in count and in mass) and size distributions of airborne bacteria (in count) and PM (both in count and in mass) in a pilot-scale welfare-oriented aviary laying-hen setting. Thirty-four laying hens were kept in the environmentally-controlled aviary setting (L x W x H = 2.2 x 2.3 x 2.4 m) for 3 months. The hens were given a 16L:8D photoperiod (lights on at 6:00h and off at 22:00h); and access to the litter floor from 12.00h to 22:00h daily. Airborne bacteria and PM were simultaneously sampled for 15 min at 1.5 m height above the litter floor every fourth day at 5:45h, 9:45h, 13:45h, 17:45h, and 21:45h. Concentrations of airborne bacteria at six size ranges (0.65-1.1 μm, 1.1-2.1 μm, 2.1-3.3 μm, 3.3-4.7 μm, 4.7-7.1 μm, and >7.1 μm) and the PM concentrations (0.5-20 μm) were determined. The daily mean (±SD) concentrations of PM count, PM mass and total bacterial concentration were, respectively, 1.70 (± 0.66) ×107 particles m -3, 1.12 (± 0.47) mg m-3 and 3.39 (± 2.38) ×105 CFU m-3. Concentrations of PM and total bacteria during the litter-access period (12:00h-22:00h) were significantly higher than those during the rest of the day when the hens were off the floor (P <0.05). Median diameters for the PM count and mass were, respectively, 2.11 μm and 7.45 μm. PM <10 μm accounted for more than 95% of the total PM count, whereas PM >2.5 μm accounted for more than 90% of the total PM mass. The majority (>95%) of the airborne bacteria were contained in particles >3.3 μm. Airborne bacteria count was positively related to PM mass concentration (P <0.05) with a slope of 3.84(± 2.70) ×705 CFU mg-1 PM. Results of the study are useful for improving understanding of transport behaviors of aerosols in the aviary hen setting, assessing potential respiratory risks to humans and animals, and exploring mitigation techniques.

KW - Airborne bacteria

KW - Cage-free

KW - Particulate matter

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