Comprehensive comparison of various techniques for the analysis of elemental distributions in thin films

D. Abou-Ras, R. Caballero, C. H. Fischer, C. A. Kaufmann, I. Lauermann, R. Mainz, H. Mönig, A. Schöpke, C. Stephan, C. Streeck, S. Schorr, A. Eicke, M. Döbeli, B. Gade, J. Hinrichs, T. Nunney, H. Dijkstra, V. Hoffmann, D. Klemm, V. EfimovaA. Bergmaier, G. Dollinger, T. Wirth, W. Unger, A. A. Rockett, A. Perez-Rodriguez, J. Alvarez-Garcia, V. Izquierdo-Roca, T. Schmid, P. P. Choi, M. Müller, F. Bertram, J. Christen, H. Khatri, R. W. Collins, S. Marsillac, I. Kötschau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The present work shows results on elemental distribution analyses in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films for solar cells performed by use of wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) in a scanning electron microscope, EDX in a transmission electron microscope, X-ray photoelectron, angle-dependent soft X-ray emission, secondary ion-mass (SIMS), time-of-flight SIMS, sputtered neutral mass, glow-discharge optical emission and glow-discharge mass, Auger electron, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, by use of scanning Auger electron microscopy, Raman depth profiling, and Raman mapping, as well as by use of elastic recoil detection analysis, grazing-incidence X-ray and electron backscatter diffraction, and grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence analysis. The Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin films used for the present comparison were produced during the same identical deposition run and exhibit thicknesses of about 2 μm. The analysis techniques were compared with respect to their spatial and depth resolutions, measuring speeds, availabilities, and detection limits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)728-751
Number of pages24
JournalMicroscopy and Microanalysis
Volume17
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2011

Keywords

  • chalcopyrite-type
  • chemical mapping
  • comparison
  • Cu(In,Ga)Se
  • depth profiling
  • elemental distributions
  • solar cells
  • thin films

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation

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