Compositional characterization of PM2.5 emitted from in-use diesel vehicles

Nguyen Thi Kim Oanh, Worrarat Thiansathit, Tami C. Bond, R. Subramanian, Ekbordin Winijkul, Ittipol Paw-armart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In Asian developing countries diesel vehicles contribute significantly to urban air pollution. The emission factors (EF) and exhaust gas composition of these vehicles may be different from those in the US and Europe, where most emission measurements are taken. This study focuses on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emission from in-use diesel vehicles in Bangkok, with the goal of providing EF and source profiles that are more appropriate for developing countries. The chassis dynamometer test results for 93 vehicles, including 39 light duty (LD) and 54 heavy duty (HD) of the age models between 1972 and 2005, are presented. PM EF are lower for vehicles of newer year models, consistent with the implementation of engine standards. The average PM2.5 EF of 0.23 g km-1 for LD, and 1.76 g km-1 for HD trucks and buses are generally higher than the literature reported values. Old HD trucks produce the highest PM EF of above 3 g km-1. Black carbon (BC), measured by an optical method, is well correlated with elemental carbon (EC) by TOT, but is consistently about 1.7 times higher. Between the LD and HD fleets, there is no significant difference in the fractional composition (BC, EC, OC, water soluble ions and elements) of emitted PM2.5. The composite source profile, weighted against the fleet composition and the vehicle km travelled (VKT) for the city has an average OC of 19%, EC of 47%, and sulfate of 2%, which are close to those reported for 1980s US diesel vehicles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15-22
Number of pages8
JournalAtmospheric Environment
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2010


  • Bangkok
  • Composite diesel PM profile
  • Composition
  • Diesel particles
  • Emission factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Atmospheric Science


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