A composition comprising an engineered defect concentration comprises a metal oxide single crystal having a polar surface and a bulk concentration of interstitial oxygen (Oi) of at least about 1014 atoms/cm3. The polar surface comprises a concentration of impurity species of about 5' or less of a monolayer. A method of engineering a defect concentration in a single crystal comprises exposing a metal oxide single crystal having a polar surface to molecular oxygen at a temperature of about 850° C. or less, and injecting atomic oxygen into the single crystal at an effective diffusion rate Deff of at least about 10−16 cm2/s.
|Original language||English (US)|
|U.S. patent number||10161062|
|State||Published - Dec 25 2018|