Complementary and Integrative Health Information in the literature: its lexicon and named entity recognition

Huixue Zhou, Robin Austin, Sheng-Chieh Lu, Greg Marc Silverman, Yuqi Zhou, Halil Kilicoglu, Hua Xu, Rui Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To construct an exhaustive Complementary and Integrative Health (CIH) Lexicon (CIHLex) to help better represent the often underrepresented physical and psychological CIH approaches in standard terminologies, and to also apply state-of-the-art natural language processing (NLP) techniques to help recognize them in the biomedical literature. Materials and methods: We constructed the CIHLex by integrating various resources, compiling and integrating data from biomedical literature and relevant sources of knowledge. The Lexicon encompasses 724 unique concepts with 885 corresponding unique terms. We matched these concepts to the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), and we developed and utilized BERT models comparing their efficiency in CIH named entity recognition to well-established models including MetaMap and CLAMP, as well as the large language model GPT3.5-turbo. Results: Of the 724 unique concepts in CIHLex, 27.2% could be matched to at least one term in the UMLS. About 74.9% of the mapped UMLS Concept Unique Identifiers were categorized as "Therapeutic or Preventive Procedure."Among the models applied to CIH named entity recognition, BLUEBERT delivered the highest macro-average F1-score of 0.91, surpassing other models. Conclusion: Our CIHLex significantly augments representation of CIH approaches in biomedical literature. Demonstrating the utility of advanced NLP models, BERT notably excelled in CIH entity recognition. These results highlight promising strategies for enhancing standardization and recognition of CIH terminology in biomedical contexts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberocad216
Pages (from-to)426-434
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American Medical Informatics Association
Issue number2
Early online dateNov 10 2023
StatePublished - Feb 1 2024


  • Complementary and Integrative Health
  • named entity recognition
  • Unified Medical Language System
  • terminology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics


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