The mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) is used as a preplant soil fumigant. In comparison with individual fumigants, application of a mixture may affect the environmental dissipation and fate of each chemical, such as emission and degradation. We investigated the degradation of CP, 1,3-D, and their mixture in fresh soils and sterile soils, and evaluated the competitive characteristic of fumigants in the mixture. The degradation of low concentrations of CP in fresh soil was accelerated at early times in the presence of 1,3-D, whereas the addition of CP reduced the degradation rate of trans-1,3-D, possibly by inhibiting the activity of trans-1,3-D degrading microorganisms. The potential of applying amendments to the soil to increase the rate of CP and 1,3-D degradation was also illustrated. The degradation of both fumigants was significantly enhanced in soils amended with ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) and sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (Na-DEDTC) compared with unamended soil. Competitive degradation was observed for CP in amended soils in the presence of 1,3-D. The degradation of cis-1,3-D in amended soils spiked as a mixture of 1,3-D and CP was repressed compared with the rate of degradation in samples spiked with 1,3-D only. This implied that in abiotic degradation, CP and cis-1,3-D competed for a limited number of reaction sites in amended soil, resulting in decreased degradation rates. No significant influence of fumigant mixtures was observed for trans-1,3-D in amended soil.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Water Science and Technology
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law