Comparing frustrated and unfrustrated clusters of single-domain ferromagnetic islands

J. Li, S. Zhang, J. Bartell, C. Nisoli, X. Ke, Paul E. Lammert, Vincent H. Crespi, P. Schiffer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We have studied the magnetic-moment configurations of different geometry clusters of single-domain nanoscale ferromagnetic islands. The clusters consisted of four islands arranged in geometries taken from the square lattice of artificial spin ice. The magnetic-moment configurations were imaged by magnetic force microscopy after effectively annealing through ac demagnetization. We then compared the results for cluster geometries with and without frustration of the magnetostatic interactions between the island moments. We found that nonfrustrated clusters achieve their lowest energy states more readily than do frustrated clusters. This behavior suggests the presence of a kinetic barrier associated with frustration of the magnetostatic interactions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number134407
JournalPhysical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics
Issue number13
StatePublished - Oct 5 2010
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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