Commuting trends in U.S. Cities in the 1990s

Bumsoo Lee, Peter Gordon, Harry W. Richardson, James E. Moore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This article attempts to explain the increase in commuting times in the 1990s after decades of stability. Although traditional explanations, for example both demographic variables (population growth and densities) and transportation variables (e.g. road capacity and transit use), pass the statistical significance tests, their overall impact was small. Instead, the article argues for the importance of strong income growth in the late 1990s, not least because it was associated with an increase in non-work vehicle miles traveled; these affect commuting times because many non-work trips take place in peak hours.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)78-89
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Planning Education and Research
Issue number1
StatePublished - Sep 2009


  • Commuting times
  • Congestion
  • Non-work trips

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Development
  • Urban Studies

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